In this section, Regenerative Cell Institute, a trusted provider of stem cell therapy in Las Vegas, NV, discusses endothelial extracellular vesicles in pulmonary function and disease.
A healthy endothelium helps maintain blood fluidity and vascular tone. However, endothelial dysfunction is highlighted by a shift of the endothelial secretome from anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory toward more pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory factors. It is also highlighted by an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation.
Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles
Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from endothelial cells (ECs) upon apoptosis or activation. Accounting for about 5 – 15%, EMPs constitute a large subclass of all the circulating MPs in peripheral blood. However, majority of circulating plasma EVs are derived from erythrocytes and platelets which together, account for over 50%. Although it has numerous effects on the human body, EMPs are overall considered to impair vascular functions by being pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulative, as well as by mitigating nitric oxide production from endothelial cells.
Endothelial Dysfunction and COPD
Endothelial dysfunction is one of the earliest vascular changes that occur in atherosclerosis. It is also proposed to actively promote atherogenesis. In COPD patients, emphysema formation is linked with endothelial cell stress and cell death in the pulmonary capillaries which leads to impaired vessel function. Moreover, endothelial damage may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. Therefore, it may mechanistically explain the high comorbidity rate between CVD and COPD.
Increased concentrations of circulating endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are thought to both promote and result from endothelial dysfunction. As such, EVs may act as surrogate markers for endothelial stress. EVs may also reflect endothelial inflammation, vascular tone, and coagulability.
Studies illustrate that EVs and EMPs can contribute to pulmonary function and diseases. In contrast, EVs are also crucial mediators of pulmonary protection and regulators of pulmonary homeostasis. The pathophysiological roles of EVs and EC-derived and their cargo in cancer, lung disease, COPD, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases are becoming increasingly recognized.
At Regenerative Cell Institute, we are at the forefront of EV and EMP studies to ensure the delivery of cutting-edge regenerative treatments to our clients.